Explain Safety Concepts in Industries

All about Safety Concepts in Industries

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In all kinds of industries, each shop supervisor is generally assigned the responsibility of safety in his shop regarding the men, machines and materials. Every supervisor in each shop ensures to the top executives in respect of all kinds of the safety matters. He is supposed to incorporate all new safety measures needed in the shop from time to time. 

With the growth in the size of the industry and depending upon the hazardous of industrial processes, a full fledged safety department should be created under the intensive supervision through a safety manager. The safety manager may be given a line position or staff position depending upon the working conditions in the industry. 

Sometimes the responsibility for safety rests on a safety committee formed by the top executives of the organization. A safety committee may consist of executives, supervisors, and shop floor workers. Thus the lower level employees get a channel of communication on safety matters direct to executive level. It is a matter of fact that those organizations which made safety committees had lower record of accidents than those without safety committees. 

Safety committees always motivate all the industrial employees for developing safety consciousness. It acts also as a policy making body on safety matters. To enhance the efficiency of the safety committee, some safety problem may be assigned to safety staff for identifying and implementing safety rules and publicizing them. 

Its members should be asked to go on the shop floor and watch what is being done there till date about the safety measures. It should be asked to report periodically as what improvements have been made and what more can be done for safety aspects in near future for avoiding any mis-happening in the plant. 

Safety committee often organizes safety programs to make industrial persons sufficiently alert for overall safety within the plant. A safety program tends to discover when, where and why accidents occur. It always aims at reducing accidents and the losses associated with them. It begins with the assumption that more work-connected accidents can be prevented. It does not have an end rather it is a continuous process to achieve adequate safety.

It involves providing, safety equipments and special training to employees. It consists of support by top management, appointing a safety officer, engineering a safe plant, processes and operations, educating all industrial employees to work safely, studying and analyzing the accidents to prevent their occurrence in future, holding safety contests, safety weeks etc., and awarding incentives or special prizes to departments which enforces the safety rules and having least number of accidents.

Safety Concepts in Engineering Manner

A safety programme should always include engineering safety at the design and equipment installation stage, education of employees in safe practices, concerns the attitude of employees and management. 

It should motivate all the industrial employees in accident prevention and safety consciousness. It must provide all safety instructions and training essential for the employees to think, act and work safely so that the number of accidents can be minimized. Safety education must give knowledge about safe and unsafe mechanical conditions and personal practices. 

Safety training must involve induction and orientation of new recruits to safety rules and practices, explaining safety function, during their initial job training through efforts made by the first level supervisors. Formulating employee’s safety committees, holding of employee’s safety meeting, display of charts, posters, film etc. are very much essential in each industry for stressing the need to act safely. 

It educates employees to develop their safety consciousness. An industrial worker will usually accept the use of a safety measure if he is convinced of its necessity. Therefore, suitable measures must be adopted to increase the awareness of a need for safety in the environment of work. Such measures are required in an industrial organization to develop safety consciousness among workers or other employees. 

There should be sufficient display of safety posters and films from time to time to remind industrial workers to particular hazards/accidents, providing simple and convenient safety devices, providing time to the worker for setting, removing and replacing any necessary safety devices. All industrial personnel should be asked from the first day to start working to adopt safety measures because an unskilled worker should be familiar fully to work safely. 

A safety committee should manage regular safety programmes that may hold safety competitions. Award and prizes are also to be given to the winners for imparting due respect and recognition to safe workers and create in employees a feeling of pride in safe work. It should elaborate on the safety theme until all the employees are safety conscious. 

It must hold regular safety meetings and stimulates the safety ideas in industrial workers for being more safety conscious. It must ask the shop supervisor to display all the safety aspects near the work centre. It should also mail safety information and sufficient literature pertaining to safety for reading at homes of all the industrial employees. 

It must welcome all safety suggestions. It must mark categorically all accident areas. It must conduct safety training lectures periodically for providing wide publicity to safety aspects for everything including men, machines and materials

Some interesting facts about Harvard University

About Harvard University 

The Harvard University of America was founded on 8th September 1636. This University was chosen as the Best Prestige's Institute in the 'World Reputation Rankings 2016' survey. In this survey, Harvard University was at the top for the third consecutive time. 
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Image source: www.huffingtonpost.in

Some interesting facts related to Harvard University

  1. Harvard University is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It was founded in 1636.
    In the beginning, it was known as New College and The College of New Town.
  2. On 13 March 1639, it was renamed Harvard College. It was named after John Harvard. 
  3. John Harvard had a library of four hundred books and a $779 charity to run this institute.
  4. There is more than 2100 faculty in this university.
  5. More than 21 thousand students take admission in every year. There are more than 7,000 foreign students in this.
  6. Many people who have read here have also received Nobel and Pulitzer Prize.
    Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg also has studied here.

Comparison of Product Layout and Functional Layout

Comparison of Line or Product Layout and Process or Functional Layout

S.No. Line or Product Layout Process or Functional Layout
1. In line or product layout, similar machines are arranged according to the sequence of operations required for manufacturing the product. In process or functional layout, similar machines are arranged in one location for manufacturing the product.
2. It leads to transfer lines. It leads to group technology.
3. It is meant for mass production and extremely less job variety It is meant for moderate production and more job variety.
4. Work flow is not smooth in this layout
5. Job movement is very less. Job movement is comparatively more.
6. Full automation in material handling is possible in this layout. Automation in material handling is not effective in this layout.
7. Machine utilization is poor in this layout. Machinery utilization is better in this layout.
8. Capital investment required is more in this layout. Capital investment required is comparatively less in this layout.
9. Inventory requirement is less. Inventory requirement is comparatively more.
10. Breakdown of one machine affects greatly in this layout. Breakdown of one machine does not affect so much in this layout.
11. Production planning and control is easy. Production planning and control is comparatively difficult.
12. Quality of product is not so good. Quality of product quality is better
13. Work flexibility is very less in this layout Work flexibility is more in this layout
14. Space required for same amount of production is less. Space required for same amount of production is comparatively more.
15. Time taken in completion of product is less. Time taken in completion of product is more.

Define Combination Layout

What is combination layout?

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A combination of process and product layouts combines the advantages of both types of layouts. Most of the manufacturing sections are arranged in process layout with manufacturing lines occurring here and there scattered wherever the conditions permit. 

These days, the most of the manufacturing industries have adopted this kind of layout. In this type of layout, a set of machinery or equipment is grouped together in a section, and so on, so that each set or group of machines or equipment is used to perform similar operation s to produce a family of components. 

A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes. In such cases, machinery and manufacturing equipment are arranged in a process layout but a group of a number of similar machines is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of products. 

In this layout, it is noted that no matter the product varies in size and type, the sequence of operations remain same or similar. This layout is suitable when similar activities are performed together thereby avoiding wasteful time in changing from one unrelated activity to the next. 

It focuses on avoiding unnecessary duplication of an effort. It is preferable for storing and retrieving information changing related to recurring problems thereby reducing the search for understanding information and eliminating the need to solve the problem again. 

It is also useful when a number of items are produced in the same sequence but none of the items is to be produced in bulk and thus no item justifies for an individual and independent production line. There are some merits, demerits and application of this layout which are given as under :

Merits

The merits of this type of layout are:

1. Reduction in cost of machine set-up time and material handling of metals.
2. Elimination of excess work-in-process inventory which subsequently allows the reduction in lot size.
3. Simplification of production planning functions, etc.

Demerits

The major demerits of this layout are :

1. Change of the existing layout is time-consuming and costly.
2. The inclusion of new components in the existing component requires thorough analysis.
3. Change of input component mix may likely to change complete layout structure.
4. Change of batch size may change a number of machines.

Application

Manufacturing circular metal saws, hacksaw, wooden saw, files and crankshaft

Production & Industrial Engineering - Objective Questions with Answers

Objective Question-Answer from Production and Industrial Engineering

Production & Industrial Engineering - Objective Questions with Answers

1. .............activities are the activities for which total float is equal to zero.
(A) Dummy
(C) Critical ✔
(B) Subcritical
(D) Supercritical

2. Layout provides greater flexibility
(A) Product
(B) Process ✔
(C) Fixed position
(D) Group

3. In a shop, heavy jobs are lifted by means of-
(B) Conveyors
(D) Overhead crane ✔
(A) Fork lift
C) Hoists

4. ..................is a group incentive plan.
(A) Stanlon plan ✔
(C) Rowan plan
(B) Bedaux plan
(D) None of the above

5. ..chart is not associated with work study.
(A) Gnatt ✔
(B) SING
(C) Multiple activity
(D) None of these

6. One TMU (Time Measurement Unit) equals-
(A) 000001 hours ✔
(B) 000003 hours
(C) 000006 hours
(D) 000008 hours

7. In time study, the rating factor is applied to determine.....
A. standard time of a job
B. merit rating of the worker
C. fixation of incentive rate
D. normal time of a worker ✔

8. ...............plan is a bonus plan in which allowance is determined in terms of time for each unit of output instead of money
(A) Rowan
(C) Group
(B) Bedaux
(D) Hour-for-hour ✔

9. ...................introduced therbligs
(A) Blanket
(C) Cooper
(B) Gilbreath ✔
(D) Adam

10. In .............. production acceptance sampling widely used.
(A) Job
(C) Mass ✔
(B) Batch
(D) All of the above

Define Electric Resistance Welding

About Electric Resistance Welding

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It is used for joining pieces of sheet metal or wire. It is a type of pressure welding. The welding heat is obtained at the location of the desired weld by the electrical resistance through the metal pieces to a relatively short duration, low voltage (from 6 to 10 volts only) high amperes (varying from 60 to 4000 amperes) electric current. 

Other details

The amount of current can be regulated by changing the primary turns of the transformer. When the area to be welded is sufficiently heated, the pressure varying from 25 to 55 MPa is applied to the joining area by suitable electrodes until the weld is solid.

Various types of electric resistance welding are as follows:

  1. Spot welding
  2. Projection welding
  3. Butt welding
  4. Roll spot and seam welding
  5. Carbon Arc welding
  6. Metal Arc welding
  7. Automatic Hydrogen welding
  8. Stud arc welding
  9. Submerged arc welding