Showing posts with label Electrical Engineering. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Electrical Engineering. Show all posts

Electrical Machine and Control (NEE-409) Syllabus (UPTU / AKTU)

Electrical Machine and Control (NEE-409) EMAC Syllabus (UPTU / AKTU) of Mechanical Engineering (2nd Year)

Subject NameELECTRICAL MACHINES & CONTROL
Subject CodeNEE-409
BranchMechanical Engineering
UNIT I
Single phase Transformer: Efficiency Voltage regulation, O.C.& S.C. Tests. Three Phase Transformer: Three phase transformer connections, Auto Transformer: Volt- Amp relations, Efficiency, Advantages & Disadvantages, Applications. D.C. Motors: Concept of starting, Speed control, Losses and Efficiency (simple numericals only)
UNIT II
Three phase Induction Motor: Construction, Equivalent circuit, Torque equation and torque- slip
characteristics, Speed control (simple numericals only).
Alternator: Construction, e.m.f. equation, Voltage regulation and its determination by synchronous
impedance method. (simple numericals only)
Synchronous Motor (conceptual treatment only): Starting, Effect of excitation on line current (V-curves), Synchronous condenser. Servo Motor: Two phase AC and DC servo motors & their applications.
UNIT III
Modeling of Mechanical System: Linear mechanical elements, Force-voltage and force- current analogy, Electrical analog of simple mechanical systems; Concept of transfer function & its determination for simple systems. Control System: Open loop & closed loop controls systems; advantages and disadvantages. Signals: Unit step, Unit ramp, Unit impulse and Periodic signals with their mathematical representation and characteristics.
UNIT IV
Time Response Analysis: Time response of a standard second order system and response specifications. Stability: Concept and types of stability, Routh Hurwitz Criterion and its application for determination of stability, Limitations (simple numerical only); Only conceptual treatment of Polar plot, Nyquist stability criterion and assessment of stability.
UNIT V
Root Locus Techniques: Concept of root locus, construction of root loci. Bode plot, Gain margin and
Phase margin and their determination. Process control: Introduction to P, PI and PID controllers their characteristics, representation and applications.


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What are the safety precautions in industry?

Industrial Safety Precautions

Safety consideration includes proper layout of buildings and equipment, such as providing adequate ventilation, sufficient working area to the operator, clear pathways for movement of materials and parts, provision for adequate personnel facilities- viz., canteens, lunch rooms, dispensary, fire fighting services, etc. Careful planning in advance for optimized and safe layout of design and manufacturing activities for industry ensures industrial safety in the manufacturing and inventory areas. Incorporating safety considerations well in time are helpful for the establishment of a new plant as well as an existing plant needing major alterations. Such considerations lead to adequate safety to men, machine and equipments, reduction in operational time and increase in production. Several codes and standards for industrial safety, health and hygiene, fire prevention, etc. have been prescribed by government and other safety agencies and they should be fully taken care of at the planning and implementation stages of a plant. A number of important features should be considered and suitably incorporated planning the layout of a new plant and its buildings for safety. Hoists and conveyors are commonly used in industries for raising, lowering and transporting loads for limited distances. A high degree of safety is needed while these equipments are in operation. During operations of these equipments, one should keep in mind the following important safety measures.

Important factors for safety measure:

  • Material handling and its storage are very common functions in a plant. Material handling when performed manually the chances of injuries are greater. Therefore the following points should be taken care for carrying out such tasks. All material handling equipments such as conveyers, automotive guided vehicles, robots, cranes should carry proper guards for its gears and other dangerous moving parts to prevent access from these parts during operation. All hoisting devices must be equipped with limit switches for preventing loads block from over traveling accidentally. Hoisting equipment especially cranes, should only be operated by properly trained personnel for avoiding all sorts of mishaps or accidents. While operating a crane, the operator should be entirely guided by standard signal and both operator and his signaler should be thoroughly trained.
  • Proper protections against fire and explosion hazards are required when gasoline operated crains are being used. Where manual loading is done on conveyors which run along a vertical path, either partially or totally, safe load sign should be prominently displayed on all loading stations. Sufficient lighting, ventilation, drainage, escape ways and guarding should be provided for conveyors which run in pits, tunnels and similar other enclosures. Riding on a conveyor should always be prohibited. All the persons working on or around the conveyor must wear tight cloths and safety shoes. All rotating, reciprocating and projecting parts of machinery and equipments such as sprockets, gears, etc., should be adequately protected by proper guarding. An effective lubrication schedule should be worked out and implemented. All inspection should be carried out regularly and worn out parts, if any, should be replaced immediately.
  • The workers should be properly trained to adopt safe working habits and proper supervision should be done while these operations are being carried out manually. Industrial personnel and unskilled workers should be adequately trained for adopting safe working habits in the proper ways of lifting and setting down the objects. They should be told to be careful from pinches and shear points and to grasp the articles firmly when lifting or setting down. Objects which are wet or dirty or have slippery surfaces, such as greasy or oily and wet articles should be completely wiped off dry before handling them. The hands should also be kept free of oil and grease. For preventing hand injuries the handlers should be made to wear protective clothing like leather hand gloves, sleeves, etc.
  • The worker handling materials should always wear foot in order to prevent foot injuries. If an object is to be lifted and carried to some distance it should be ensured that the pathway is not slippery and there are no obstructions on the passage or way. The unskilled industrial workers should be properly trained for keeping correct positions of their feet, positions of back and knees, holding the object close to the body while lifting and carrying, correct and firm grip, position of chin and application of body weight in lifting and setting down by hand. This will help to prevent muscle strains and back injuries.
  • When a gang or team of workers is used to carry a heavy load form one place to another the supervisor should ensure the use of proper tools and direct the work himself to ensure proper synchronization in the lifting, walking and setting down actions of all the workers involved. While transporting material by trucks, the truck should be operated at safe limit speed as specified and special care should be taken at blind corners and doorways. During storing material, it should be ensured that the electrical panels and installations and fire extinguishers and hoses are kept clear and have free accessibility. Also the pathways, entries and exits should always be kept clear for movement. The use of racks and bins enables more storage capacity, easy movement of material from one place to another and ensures better safety in an industrial organization.