Showing posts with label Engineering. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Engineering. Show all posts

Automation - Basic Introduction - Mechanical Engineering

About Automation - Introduction

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The creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services.

Basic Notions

  1. Control–to regulate, direct or command.
  2. System –a collection, set of elements (subsystems)
  3. Control system –an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide the desired system response.
A control system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a manner as to command, regulate, direct or govern itself or another system.

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Input– the stimulus, a command applied to a control system
  1. Physical variable
  2. Abstract ones: reference, set point or desired values for the output of the control system.

Output– the actual response resulting from a control system.
  1. Control systems can have more that one input or output.
  2. The input & the output present the desired response and the actual response.

Three basic types of control systems:

  1. Man-made (e.g. an electric switch)
  2. Natural including biological-control systems
  3. Components are man-made and natural

Control system applications:

  1. Robotics
  2. Space-vehicle systems
  3. Aircraft autopilots & controls
  4. Ship & marine control systems, intercontinental missile guidance systems.

Role of allowance in manufacturing engineering

About Allowance


In a specific type of fit, the difference between hole size and shaft size is called allowance. An allowance is used to explain the difference between clearance fit and interference fit. Positive allowance specifies the clearance fit whereas negative allowance in a fit specifies the interference or force fit.

Mating purpose

The relationship existing between two parts, shaft and hole, which are to be assembled, with respect to the difference in their sizes before assembly is called a fit. 

Allowance is used for proper mating and assembly

When the parts are assembled into sub-assembly units and sub-assembly units are assembled into the full assembly, the mating surfaces of different components are joined together for the proper functional requirement. One of them may fit into the other in form of joint or fit. The fit may be with the suitable degree of tightness and freedom for required relative movement between mating parts for specific functional requirements of the fit.

What is interchangeability?

Introduction of Interchangeability

The dimensions of mating parts are generally controlled to have a proper fitting of matching parts for its optimal functional requirement. Providing dimensions on components or parts is the job of a product designer.

Definition of Interchangeability

Interchangeability of the parts is, therefore, a major pre-requisite for economic production, operation and maintenance of machinery mechanism and instruments. It is therefore very much possible to interchange spare parts in various machines, tractors, motor cars, machines tools, airplanes and many, others so that they can be dismantled for replacement of parts in service conditions in the field, and also in many local workshops with least possible loss of time. 

Application of Interchangeability

In order to produce interchangeable or identical parts, the components of interchangeable system and the various terms related with inter changeability of the mating parts should be understood clearly by the product designing, manufacturing and product inspecting staff working in industries.

What are the terminologies of inspection in manufacturing?

Inspection Terminology in Manufacturing Science

  1. Inspection or checking of components or products with required specifications is very minutely related with quality control.
  2.  It is generally an accepted fact that no two things can ever be exactly same. It also holds true with manufactured parts. 
  3. Therefore certain variations or deviations in dimensions and other product specifications are accepted. However, only few produced articles or parts may be rejected if the deviations go beyond the specified quality standards. 
  4. Therefore it becomes essential to detect errors so that the manufacturing of faulty product does not go uncorrected. 
  5. The philosophy of inspection is only preventive and not remedial. In other words the inspection of products is measuring or checking its quality in terms geometrical tolerances of other specified feature of needed design. 
  6. Generally, there are three basic areas of inspection namely receiving inspection, in-process inspection and final inspection.
  7. In the receiving inspection, inspections are performed on all incoming materials and purchased parts.
  8. In the in-process inspection the products are inspected as they are in processed in stages from starting station to finished station. 
  9. In the final inspection, all finished products or parts are inspected finally prior to delivering them to the customer.