Showing posts with label Mechanical Engineering. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mechanical Engineering. Show all posts

Better Field - Mechanical or Production Engineering?

Mechanical Engineering vs Production Engineering

Production Engineering is, for the most part, a study program in Mechanical Engineering, with added emphasis on Manufacturing Engineering, Statistics and Industrial Management. All of these topics are also covered in the typical Mechanical Engineering program, albeit to a lesser extent.
Image source: http://www.practicalengineers.com.au
There is no question about which is best both of them are best on it's own way.If you are interested in the field of production methods and it's technical terminologies then you should go for production engineering and if you have interest in learning the production method,thermal properties, fluid properties, mechanics, vibration properties of various engineering items or components also sometimes management of it then you will like mechanical engineering. But let me give you a free advice job market of these branches in India are not good in present scenario unless and until you are from an IIT or an good NIT.

Better Field - Mechanical or Production Engineering

Both are almost same branches except some subject. Both the branches have specialty in manufacturing engineering and machine design. But there is one subject or you can say one side known as thermal science which differentiate them. Thermal science is broad and very interesting branch which consist of several subjects like thermodynamics, heat transfer, refrigeration and air conditioning & power plant engineering.

Those subjects are heart of anything related to temperature and heat. By knowing these subjects one can understand why our skin becomes dry in winter and sweaty in summer. Why we put cotton clothes on forehead of seek person what is reason behind it.

As compared to mechanical branch production have some deep knowledge of manufacturing science but they are far away from the Thermal science which is biggest disadvantage of choosing production engineering.

Explain Safety Concepts in Industries

All about Safety Concepts in Industries

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In all kinds of industries, each shop supervisor is generally assigned the responsibility of safety in his shop regarding the men, machines and materials. Every supervisor in each shop ensures to the top executives in respect of all kinds of the safety matters. He is supposed to incorporate all new safety measures needed in the shop from time to time. 

With the growth in the size of the industry and depending upon the hazardous of industrial processes, a full fledged safety department should be created under the intensive supervision through a safety manager. The safety manager may be given a line position or staff position depending upon the working conditions in the industry. 

Sometimes the responsibility for safety rests on a safety committee formed by the top executives of the organization. A safety committee may consist of executives, supervisors, and shop floor workers. Thus the lower level employees get a channel of communication on safety matters direct to executive level. It is a matter of fact that those organizations which made safety committees had lower record of accidents than those without safety committees. 

Safety committees always motivate all the industrial employees for developing safety consciousness. It acts also as a policy making body on safety matters. To enhance the efficiency of the safety committee, some safety problem may be assigned to safety staff for identifying and implementing safety rules and publicizing them. 

Its members should be asked to go on the shop floor and watch what is being done there till date about the safety measures. It should be asked to report periodically as what improvements have been made and what more can be done for safety aspects in near future for avoiding any mis-happening in the plant. 

Safety committee often organizes safety programs to make industrial persons sufficiently alert for overall safety within the plant. A safety program tends to discover when, where and why accidents occur. It always aims at reducing accidents and the losses associated with them. It begins with the assumption that more work-connected accidents can be prevented. It does not have an end rather it is a continuous process to achieve adequate safety.

It involves providing, safety equipments and special training to employees. It consists of support by top management, appointing a safety officer, engineering a safe plant, processes and operations, educating all industrial employees to work safely, studying and analyzing the accidents to prevent their occurrence in future, holding safety contests, safety weeks etc., and awarding incentives or special prizes to departments which enforces the safety rules and having least number of accidents.

Safety Concepts in Engineering Manner

A safety programme should always include engineering safety at the design and equipment installation stage, education of employees in safe practices, concerns the attitude of employees and management. 

It should motivate all the industrial employees in accident prevention and safety consciousness. It must provide all safety instructions and training essential for the employees to think, act and work safely so that the number of accidents can be minimized. Safety education must give knowledge about safe and unsafe mechanical conditions and personal practices. 

Safety training must involve induction and orientation of new recruits to safety rules and practices, explaining safety function, during their initial job training through efforts made by the first level supervisors. Formulating employee’s safety committees, holding of employee’s safety meeting, display of charts, posters, film etc. are very much essential in each industry for stressing the need to act safely. 

It educates employees to develop their safety consciousness. An industrial worker will usually accept the use of a safety measure if he is convinced of its necessity. Therefore, suitable measures must be adopted to increase the awareness of a need for safety in the environment of work. Such measures are required in an industrial organization to develop safety consciousness among workers or other employees. 

There should be sufficient display of safety posters and films from time to time to remind industrial workers to particular hazards/accidents, providing simple and convenient safety devices, providing time to the worker for setting, removing and replacing any necessary safety devices. All industrial personnel should be asked from the first day to start working to adopt safety measures because an unskilled worker should be familiar fully to work safely. 

A safety committee should manage regular safety programmes that may hold safety competitions. Award and prizes are also to be given to the winners for imparting due respect and recognition to safe workers and create in employees a feeling of pride in safe work. It should elaborate on the safety theme until all the employees are safety conscious. 

It must hold regular safety meetings and stimulates the safety ideas in industrial workers for being more safety conscious. It must ask the shop supervisor to display all the safety aspects near the work centre. It should also mail safety information and sufficient literature pertaining to safety for reading at homes of all the industrial employees. 

It must welcome all safety suggestions. It must mark categorically all accident areas. It must conduct safety training lectures periodically for providing wide publicity to safety aspects for everything including men, machines and materials

Comparison of Product Layout and Functional Layout

Comparison of Line or Product Layout and Process or Functional Layout

S.No. Line or Product Layout Process or Functional Layout
1. In line or product layout, similar machines are arranged according to the sequence of operations required for manufacturing the product. In process or functional layout, similar machines are arranged in one location for manufacturing the product.
2. It leads to transfer lines. It leads to group technology.
3. It is meant for mass production and extremely less job variety It is meant for moderate production and more job variety.
4. Work flow is not smooth in this layout
5. Job movement is very less. Job movement is comparatively more.
6. Full automation in material handling is possible in this layout. Automation in material handling is not effective in this layout.
7. Machine utilization is poor in this layout. Machinery utilization is better in this layout.
8. Capital investment required is more in this layout. Capital investment required is comparatively less in this layout.
9. Inventory requirement is less. Inventory requirement is comparatively more.
10. Breakdown of one machine affects greatly in this layout. Breakdown of one machine does not affect so much in this layout.
11. Production planning and control is easy. Production planning and control is comparatively difficult.
12. Quality of product is not so good. Quality of product quality is better
13. Work flexibility is very less in this layout Work flexibility is more in this layout
14. Space required for same amount of production is less. Space required for same amount of production is comparatively more.
15. Time taken in completion of product is less. Time taken in completion of product is more.

Define Combination Layout

What is combination layout?

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A combination of process and product layouts combines the advantages of both types of layouts. Most of the manufacturing sections are arranged in process layout with manufacturing lines occurring here and there scattered wherever the conditions permit. 

These days, the most of the manufacturing industries have adopted this kind of layout. In this type of layout, a set of machinery or equipment is grouped together in a section, and so on, so that each set or group of machines or equipment is used to perform similar operation s to produce a family of components. 

A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes. In such cases, machinery and manufacturing equipment are arranged in a process layout but a group of a number of similar machines is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of products. 

In this layout, it is noted that no matter the product varies in size and type, the sequence of operations remain same or similar. This layout is suitable when similar activities are performed together thereby avoiding wasteful time in changing from one unrelated activity to the next. 

It focuses on avoiding unnecessary duplication of an effort. It is preferable for storing and retrieving information changing related to recurring problems thereby reducing the search for understanding information and eliminating the need to solve the problem again. 

It is also useful when a number of items are produced in the same sequence but none of the items is to be produced in bulk and thus no item justifies for an individual and independent production line. There are some merits, demerits and application of this layout which are given as under :

Merits

The merits of this type of layout are:

1. Reduction in cost of machine set-up time and material handling of metals.
2. Elimination of excess work-in-process inventory which subsequently allows the reduction in lot size.
3. Simplification of production planning functions, etc.

Demerits

The major demerits of this layout are :

1. Change of the existing layout is time-consuming and costly.
2. The inclusion of new components in the existing component requires thorough analysis.
3. Change of input component mix may likely to change complete layout structure.
4. Change of batch size may change a number of machines.

Application

Manufacturing circular metal saws, hacksaw, wooden saw, files and crankshaft

Production & Industrial Engineering - Objective Questions with Answers

Objective Question-Answer from Production and Industrial Engineering

Production & Industrial Engineering - Objective Questions with Answers

1. .............activities are the activities for which total float is equal to zero.
(A) Dummy
(C) Critical ✔
(B) Subcritical
(D) Supercritical

2. Layout provides greater flexibility
(A) Product
(B) Process ✔
(C) Fixed position
(D) Group

3. In a shop, heavy jobs are lifted by means of-
(B) Conveyors
(D) Overhead crane ✔
(A) Fork lift
C) Hoists

4. ..................is a group incentive plan.
(A) Stanlon plan ✔
(C) Rowan plan
(B) Bedaux plan
(D) None of the above

5. ..chart is not associated with work study.
(A) Gnatt ✔
(B) SING
(C) Multiple activity
(D) None of these

6. One TMU (Time Measurement Unit) equals-
(A) 000001 hours ✔
(B) 000003 hours
(C) 000006 hours
(D) 000008 hours

7. In time study, the rating factor is applied to determine.....
A. standard time of a job
B. merit rating of the worker
C. fixation of incentive rate
D. normal time of a worker ✔

8. ...............plan is a bonus plan in which allowance is determined in terms of time for each unit of output instead of money
(A) Rowan
(C) Group
(B) Bedaux
(D) Hour-for-hour ✔

9. ...................introduced therbligs
(A) Blanket
(C) Cooper
(B) Gilbreath ✔
(D) Adam

10. In .............. production acceptance sampling widely used.
(A) Job
(C) Mass ✔
(B) Batch
(D) All of the above

Define Electric Resistance Welding

About Electric Resistance Welding

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It is used for joining pieces of sheet metal or wire. It is a type of pressure welding. The welding heat is obtained at the location of the desired weld by the electrical resistance through the metal pieces to a relatively short duration, low voltage (from 6 to 10 volts only) high amperes (varying from 60 to 4000 amperes) electric current. 

Other details

The amount of current can be regulated by changing the primary turns of the transformer. When the area to be welded is sufficiently heated, the pressure varying from 25 to 55 MPa is applied to the joining area by suitable electrodes until the weld is solid.

Various types of electric resistance welding are as follows:

  1. Spot welding
  2. Projection welding
  3. Butt welding
  4. Roll spot and seam welding
  5. Carbon Arc welding
  6. Metal Arc welding
  7. Automatic Hydrogen welding
  8. Stud arc welding
  9. Submerged arc welding

What are the basic requirements to setup a good plant layout?

Basic requirements to set up a good plant layout

  1. Integration of manufacturing centre facilities in terms of man, machine and material.
  2. Movements of production personnel and material handling should be minimized.
  3. The smooth and continuous flow of production or manufacturing work with least possible bottlenecks and congestion points.
  4. Floor space utilization should be optimum as for as possible.
  5. Working place should be free from pollution and safe working conditions should prevail in each shop of the plant.
  6. The handling of raw material, semi-finished and finished product should be should be tackled optimally and effectively.
  7. Plant layout and shop layouts must be flexible to facilitate changes in production requirements.
  8. There should be the better working environment in term of proper light, ventilation and other amenities such as drinking water and toilets for welfare for the manufacturing personnel.

Advantages of Good Plant Layout

  1. Reduced men and machine hours per unit of production,
  2. Effectively and economical utilization of entire floor space of the plant,
  3. Workflow is smooth and continuous
  4. Work in process inventory is less
  5. Production control is better
  6. Manufacturing time is less
  7. Relatively less floor area is required
  8. Material handling is less.

Types of Plant Layout

1. Fixed or Position Layout

Basic requirements to set up a good plant layout. Advantages of Good Plant Layout. Types of Plant Layout.
Basic requirements to set up a good plant layout. Advantages of Good Plant Layout. Types of Plant Layout.
  1. Fixed or position layout is also known as project layout. A typical fixed layout is shown in the figure. In this type of layout, the major part of an assembly or material remains at a fixed position. All its accessories, auxiliary material, machinery, equipment needed, tools required and the labour are brought to the fixed site to work. 
  2. Thus, the product by virtue of its bulk or weight remains at one location. Therefore the location of the major assembly, semi-assembly component and material is not disturbed till the product is ready for dispatch. 
  3. This layout is suitable when one or a few pieces of an item are to be manufactured and the material forming or treating operation requires only tools or simple machines. 
  4. This layout is highly preferable when the cost of moving the major piece of material is high and the responsibility of product quality by one skilled workman or group of skilled workers is expected. 
  5. This type of layout is mainly adopted for extremely large items manufactured in a very small quantity such as ships, aeroplanes, boilers, reactors etc. 
  6. Its main merit of this layout is the minimum movement of men, material, and tooling during the manufacturing process. 
  7. This layout is highly flexible as the type of product and the related processes can be easily changed without any change in the layout. The merit and demerit of this type of layout are given as under.

2. Process or Functional Layout

  • A typical process or functional layout is shown in the figure. In this type of layout arrangements of similar machines, production facilities and manufacturing operations are grouped together.
  • According to their functions. Machine tools of one kind are positioned together so that all the similar operations are performed always at the same place e.g. all the lathes may be grouped together for all kinds of turning and threading operations, all drilling machines in one area for carrying out drilling work, all tapping machines in one area for carrying out tapping work, all milling machines in one area for carrying out milling work all buffing and polishing machines at one place for carrying out surface finishing work, and so on. 
  • This type of layout is normally preferred for the industries involved in job order type of production and manufacturing and/or maintenance activities of non- repetitive type. This layout needs not to have to be changed every time of the product or component changes. Also, the breakdown of any machine does not affect the production. This type of layout is highly suitable for batch production.

3. Line or Product Layout

  • A typical line or product layout is shown in the figure. This layout implies that various operations on the raw material are performed in a sequence and the machines are placed along the product flow line, i.e., machines are arranged in the sequence in which the raw material will be operated upon.
  • In this type of layout all the machines are placed in a line according to the sequence of operations, i.e., each following machine or section is arranged to perform the next operation to that performed by its preceding machine or section. In this layout raw material starts from one end of production lines and moves from one machine to next along a sequential path. 
  • Line layout is advantages in the continuous- production system where the number of end products is small and the parts are highly standardized and interchangeable. It is suitable for products having the steady demand. This layout may have operational sequence namely forging, turning, drilling, milling, grinding and inspection before the product is sent to the finished goods store for packing and shipment.
  • This layout is used for mass production and ensures smooth flow of materials and reduced material handling. Breakdown of any machine in the line in this layout may result in even stoppage of production.
Also check this:

What is Plant Layout?

About Plant Layout

Plant Layout
Plant layout is such a systematic and efficient functional arrangement of various departments, machines, tools, equipment and other support services of an industrial organization that will facilitate the smooth processing of the proposed or undertaken product in the most effective, most efficient and most economical manner in the minimum possible time.

Objectives of Plant Layout

Plant layout of an industrial organization comprises of all the aspects connected with the industrial enterprise, viz., grounds, buildings, machinery, equipment, departments, methods of manufacturing, factory services, material handling, the flow of production, working conditions, hygiene, labour and shipment of goods, etc.

Control System in Plant Layout

In a best possible plant layout, material handling and transportation is minimized and efficiently controlled. Bottlenecks and points of congestions are eliminated so that the raw material and semi-finished goods move fast from one workstation to another. 

Workstations are designed suitably to facilitate the smooth processing of the proposed or undertaken product in the most effective, most efficient and most economical manner in the minimum possible time. Optimal spaces are allocated to production centres and service centres.

The primary goal of plant layout is to maximize profits by setting up the best possible arrangements of all plant facilities to the maximum advantage of reducing the cost of production of the proposed product.

About Advanced Manufacturing Engineering

Introduction to Advanced Manufacturing Engineering

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Introduction to Advanced Manufacturing Engineering
Manufacturing is derived from the Latin word manufactures means made by hand. In a modern context, it involves making products from raw material by using various processes, by making use of hand tools, machinery or even computers. It is, therefore, a study of the processes required to make parts and to assemble them in machines. 
 
Process Engineering, in its application to engineering industries, shows how the different problems related to the development of various machines may be solved by a study of physical, chemical and other laws governing the manufacturing process.
 
The study of manufacturing reveals those parameters which can be most efficiently being influenced to increase production and raise its accuracy. Advance manufacturing engineering involves the following concepts:
  • Process planning.
  • Process sheets.
  • Route sheets.
  • Tooling.
  • Cutting tools, machine tools (traditional, numerical control (NC), and computerized numerical control (CNC).
  • Jigs and Fixtures.
  • Dies and Moulds.
  • Manufacturing Information Generation.
  • CNC part programs.
  • Robot programmers.
  • Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS), Group Technology (GT) and Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM).

Types of Milling Cutter With Diagram

Types of Milling Cutters

Picture Reference: https://content.cromwell.co.uk
Milling cutters are made in various forms to perform certain classes of work, and they may be classified as:
(1) Plain milling cutters,
(2) Side milling cutters,
(3) Face milling cutter,
(4) Angle milling cutters,
(5) End milling cutter,
(6) Fly cutter,
(7) T-slot milling cutter,
(8) Formed cutters,
(9) Metal slitting saw,


Also check this:
  1. Milling Methods - Up and Down Milling Process 
  2. Milling Process - Definition and Principle

Figures of Milling Cutters

Milling cutters may have teeth on the periphery or end only, or on both the periphery and ends. Peripheral teeth may be straight or parallel to the cutter axis, or they may be helical, sometimes referred as spiral teeth.

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Angle Milling Cutter


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End Mill Cutter


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Form Milling Cutter


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Metal Slitting Cutter


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Plain Milling Cutter


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Shell End Mill Cutter


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Side Milling Cutter

Milling Methods - Up and Down Milling Process

Milling Methods

There are two distinct methods of milling classified as follows:
1. Up-milling or conventional milling, and
2. Down milling or climb milling.


Know here: Milling Process - Definition and Principle

Up-Milling or Conventional Milling

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Up-Milling or Conventional Milling Diagram

  1. In the up-milling or conventional milling, as shown in the figure, the metal is removed in form of small chips by a cutter rotating against the direction of travel of the workpiece. 
  2. In this type of milling, the chip thickness is minimum at the start of the cut and maximum at the end of the cut. 
  3. As a result of the cutting force also varies from zero to the maximum value per tooth movement of the milling cutter. 
  4. The major disadvantages of the up-milling process are the tendency of cutting force to lift the work from the fixtures and poor surface finish obtained. But being a safer process, it is commonly used the method of milling.

Down-Milling or Climb Milling Process

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Down-Milling or Climb Milling Process Diagram

  1. Down milling is shown in the figure. It is also known as climb milling. In this method, the metal is removed by a cutter rotating in the same direction of feed of the workpiece. 
  2. The effect of this is that the teeth cut downward instead of upwards. 
  3. Chip thickness is maximum at the start of the cut and minimum in the end. 
  4. In this method, it is claimed that there is less friction involved and consequently less heat is generated on the contact surface of the cutter and workpiece. 
  5. Climb milling can be used advantageously on many kinds of work to increase the number of pieces per sharpening and to produce a better finish. 
  6. With climb milling, saws cut long thin slots more satisfactorily than with standard milling. Another advantage is that slightly lower power consumption is obtainable by climb milling since there is no need to drive the table against the cutter.

Milling Process - Definition and Principle

Definition of Milling Process

  1. A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating multipoint cutter. 
  2. The milling cutter rotates at high speed and it removes metal at a very fast rate with the help of multiple cutting edges. 
  3. One or number of cutters can be mounted simultaneously on the arbour of the milling machine. This is the reason that a milling machine finds wide application in production work. 
  4. A milling machine is used for machining flat surfaces, contoured surfaces, surfaces of revolution, external and internal threads, and helical surfaces of various cross-sections.
Typical components produced by a milling are given in the figure. In many applications, due to its higher production rate and accuracy, milling machine has even replaced shapers and slotters.

What is the principle of milling process?

  1. In a milling machine, the metal is cut by means of a rotating cutter having multiple cutting edges. For cutting operation, the workpiece is fed against the rotary cutter. 
  2. As the workpiece moves against the cutting edges of the milling cutter, metal is removed in-form chips of trochoid shape. 
  3. Machined surface is formed in one or more passes of the work. The work to be machined is held in a vice, a rotary table, a three jaw chuck, an index head, between centres, in a special fixture or bolted to the machine table. 
  4. The rotatory speed of the cutting tool and the feed rate of the workpiece depending upon the type of material being machined. 
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Crater Wear | Definition with Diagram

What is crater wear?

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_wear
  • More common in ductile materials which produce the continuous chip.
  • Crater wear occurs on the rake face.
  • At very high-speed crater wear predominates.
 
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  • For crater, wear temperature is main culprit and tool defuse into the chip material & tool temperature is maximum at some distance from the tooltip. 
  • Crater depth exhibits linear increase with time.
  • It increases with MRR.
  • Crater wear has little or no influence on cutting forces, workpiece tolerance or surface finish.

Flank Wear | Reason, Effects and Stages

What are the reasons of Flank Wear?


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  1. Abrasion by hard particles and inclusions in the workpiece.
  2. Shearing off the micro welds between tool and work material.
  3. Abrasion by fragments of built-up edge ploughing against the clearance face of the tool.
  4. At low-speed flank wear predominates.
  5. If MRR increased flank wears increased.

What are the effects of Flank Wear?

  1. Flank wear directly affect the component dimensions produced.
  2. Flank wear is usually the most common determinant of tool life. 

Stages of Flank Wear

Primary wear: The region where the sharp cutting edge is quickly broken down and a finite wear land are established.
Secondary wear: The region where the wear progresses at a uniform rate.
Tertiarywear: The region where wear progresses at a gradually increasing rate. In the tertiary region, the wear of the cutting tool has become sensitive to increased tool temperature due to high wear land.
Regrinding is recommended before they enter this region.

Tool Failure | Definition and Types

Tool failure

Tool wear is a gradual phenomenon of failure of the tool due to its operating conditions.There is an equation which provides the relationship between several aspects of the tool.
Moreover in general
  • If surface hardness tool > surface hardness of workpiece then no substantial increase in tool wear with speed increase.
  • If surface hardness tool < surface hardness of workpiece then there is the substantial increase in tool wear with speed increase.
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_wear

Tool failure is two types

1. Slow death: The gradual or progressive wearing away of rake face (crater wear) or flank (flank wear) of the cutting tool or both.

2. Sudden death: Failures leading to the premature end of the tool predict. Tool failure mechanisms include plastic deformation, brittle fracture, fatigue fracture or edge chipping. However, it is difficult to predict which of these processes will dominate and when tool failure will occur.

Types of Tool Wear

(a) Flank Wear
(b) Crater Wear
(c) Chipping off of the cutting edge