Showing posts with label Mechanical Engineering. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mechanical Engineering. Show all posts

Comparison of Product Layout and Functional Layout

Comparison of Line or Product Layout and Process or Functional Layout

S.No. Line or Product Layout Process or Functional Layout
1. In line or product layout, similar machines are arranged according to the sequence of operations required for manufacturing the product. In process or functional layout, similar machines are arranged in one location for manufacturing the product.
2. It leads to transfer lines. It leads to group technology.
3. It is meant for mass production and extremely less job variety It is meant for moderate production and more job variety.
4. Work flow is not smooth in this layout
5. Job movement is very less. Job movement is comparatively more.
6. Full automation in material handling is possible in this layout. Automation in material handling is not effective in this layout.
7. Machine utilization is poor in this layout. Machinery utilization is better in this layout.
8. Capital investment required is more in this layout. Capital investment required is comparatively less in this layout.
9. Inventory requirement is less. Inventory requirement is comparatively more.
10. Breakdown of one machine affects greatly in this layout. Breakdown of one machine does not affect so much in this layout.
11. Production planning and control is easy. Production planning and control is comparatively difficult.
12. Quality of product is not so good. Quality of product quality is better
13. Work flexibility is very less in this layout Work flexibility is more in this layout
14. Space required for same amount of production is less. Space required for same amount of production is comparatively more.
15. Time taken in completion of product is less. Time taken in completion of product is more.

Define Combination Layout

What is combination layout?

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A combination of process and product layouts combines the advantages of both types of layouts. Most of the manufacturing sections are arranged in process layout with manufacturing lines occurring here and there scattered wherever the conditions permit. 

These days, the most of the manufacturing industries have adopted this kind of layout. In this type of layout, a set of machinery or equipment is grouped together in a section, and so on, so that each set or group of machines or equipment is used to perform similar operation s to produce a family of components. 

A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes. In such cases, machinery and manufacturing equipment are arranged in a process layout but a group of a number of similar machines is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of products. 

In this layout, it is noted that no matter the product varies in size and type, the sequence of operations remain same or similar. This layout is suitable when similar activities are performed together thereby avoiding wasteful time in changing from one unrelated activity to the next. 

It focuses on avoiding unnecessary duplication of an effort. It is preferable for storing and retrieving information changing related to recurring problems thereby reducing the search for understanding information and eliminating the need to solve the problem again. 

It is also useful when a number of items are produced in the same sequence but none of the items is to be produced in bulk and thus no item justifies for an individual and independent production line. There are some merits, demerits and application of this layout which are given as under :


The merits of this type of layout are:

1. Reduction in cost of machine set-up time and material handling of metals.
2. Elimination of excess work-in-process inventory which subsequently allows the reduction in lot size.
3. Simplification of production planning functions, etc.


The major demerits of this layout are :

1. Change of the existing layout is time-consuming and costly.
2. The inclusion of new components in the existing component requires thorough analysis.
3. Change of input component mix may likely to change complete layout structure.
4. Change of batch size may change a number of machines.


Manufacturing circular metal saws, hacksaw, wooden saw, files and crankshaft

Production & Industrial Engineering - Objective Questions with Answers

Objective Question-Answer from Production and Industrial Engineering

Production & Industrial Engineering - Objective Questions with Answers

1. .............activities are the activities for which total float is equal to zero.
(A) Dummy
(C) Critical ✔
(B) Subcritical
(D) Supercritical

2. Layout provides greater flexibility
(A) Product
(B) Process ✔
(C) Fixed position
(D) Group

3. In a shop, heavy jobs are lifted by means of-
(B) Conveyors
(D) Overhead crane ✔
(A) Fork lift
C) Hoists

4. a group incentive plan.
(A) Stanlon plan ✔
(C) Rowan plan
(B) Bedaux plan
(D) None of the above

5. ..chart is not associated with work study.
(A) Gnatt ✔
(C) Multiple activity
(D) None of these

6. One TMU (Time Measurement Unit) equals-
(A) 000001 hours ✔
(B) 000003 hours
(C) 000006 hours
(D) 000008 hours

7. In time study, the rating factor is applied to determine.....
A. standard time of a job
B. merit rating of the worker
C. fixation of incentive rate
D. normal time of a worker ✔

8. ...............plan is a bonus plan in which allowance is determined in terms of time for each unit of output instead of money
(A) Rowan
(C) Group
(B) Bedaux
(D) Hour-for-hour ✔

9. ...................introduced therbligs
(A) Blanket
(C) Cooper
(B) Gilbreath ✔
(D) Adam

10. In .............. production acceptance sampling widely used.
(A) Job
(C) Mass ✔
(B) Batch
(D) All of the above

Define Electric Resistance Welding

About Electric Resistance Welding

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It is used for joining pieces of sheet metal or wire. It is a type of pressure welding. The welding heat is obtained at the location of the desired weld by the electrical resistance through the metal pieces to a relatively short duration, low voltage (from 6 to 10 volts only) high amperes (varying from 60 to 4000 amperes) electric current. 

Other details

The amount of current can be regulated by changing the primary turns of the transformer. When the area to be welded is sufficiently heated, the pressure varying from 25 to 55 MPa is applied to the joining area by suitable electrodes until the weld is solid.

Various types of electric resistance welding are as follows:

  1. Spot welding
  2. Projection welding
  3. Butt welding
  4. Roll spot and seam welding
  5. Carbon Arc welding
  6. Metal Arc welding
  7. Automatic Hydrogen welding
  8. Stud arc welding
  9. Submerged arc welding